Objectivism holds that the initiation of physical force is a choice that is destructive to human life in principle, and thus evil in principle. OEE is the application of Objectivist epistemology to the fundamental problem of how to live as a human being in reality as it is. Respond to the prompt for each of the five ethical theories listed. It is one of the three normative ethics. Deontology considers the morality of an action by one’s reason for doing a certain deed. This would make OEE a distinct, egoist form of “principle consequentialism.” It would be related to “Classic Utility Egoism,” but would be “principle consequentialism” instead of “act consequentialism,” and it would have a different axiology, or theory of the good. Objectivist Ethical Egoism is a particular ethical theory that defies all three of these categorizations. Irrationality occurs when someone fails to take appropriate action to correct errors, once they are aware–or should be aware–of their errors. If he’s in a society, he must then engage in an increasingly desperate struggle to obscure the truth and prevent others from realizing that he’s their enemy. (4) Kant held that, in order to have “moral worth”–that is, to be good and praiseworthy from a moral standpoint–actions must be motivated by obedience to the moral law, (“duty.”) If someone does something in accordance with the moral law–say telling the truth–but is motivated by the desire to have good relationships or to avoid being convicted of fraud, the action is not a morally right action. I am writing a paper using the article above and would like to reference you correctly, however, I cannot find your name. Thus he depends on his victims’ irrationality to stay in power, and not be imprisoned or killed. Deontology (Virtue Ethics) Philosophical Ethics Consequentialism the value of an action (the action's moral worth, its rightness or wrongness) derives entirely from its consequences to evaluate an action, look at its consequences; if they are "good" (or the best possible), then the action is right; if the consequences are "bad", then the action is wrong. Or is it the consequences that were reasonably foreseeable by the agent? For a one-time gain of her material products, the man has sacrificed the countless benefits that he could have had if she remained alive. Ultimately, consequentialism provides the, distinct ethical theories have come to dominate the contemporary debate: outcome ethics (or consequentialism), duty ethics (or deontology) and virtue ethics. Oct 27, 2019 - Consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics are moral theories that evaluate morality on the basis of different factors. Virtue theory emphasizes character traits rather than the rules or consequences while deontology is described as an action that is right only if it is in accordance with a moral rule or principle. This would generate a theory we could call “Classic Utility Egoism.” (As we’ll see in more detail, this form of egoism is very different from Objectivist Ethical Egoism.). As implied in the essay, the SEP entry on Consequentialism is a major source for that section, as well as The History of Utilitarianism, and the articles for major utilitarian and consequentialist thinkers, like Bentham and Mill. This section provides an overview of the major schools of thought in Western ethics: consequentialism, deontology, virtue ethics, natural law, and moral relativism. (12) Using a comparative standard between oneself and others is not a rational way of evaluating oneself. Hypothetical imperatives are rules that you follow in order to attain some goal. The dictator ends up faking in virtually every aspect of life. For Objectivist Ethical Egoism, I gave several good references at the end. Moreover, even as principles of action, virtues are not the most fundamental starting points of OEE. Whereas other sorts of immorality primarily harm the immoral agent, leaving others basically free to function, initiations of force attack the root of the victims’ survival by subverting their ability to act rationally. Both of these were published by the Ayn Rand Society, an affiliate of the American Philosophical Association. That which promotes the individual’s own life overall is the good for him, that which damages or destroys his own life is the bad for him. CU also takes the actual consequences for net utility as the morally relevant kind, rather than probable, foreseen, or intended consequences at the time of the action. (3) I’d like to note here that I don’t consider the term “preference utilitarianism” a good name for Singers’ pre-2014 view. The study of ethics spreads around three areas; Meta-ethics, Normative-ethics, and Applied-ethics. The impact on the victim’s mind and life is much less, but still present. Recall from the start of the section on the Objectivist virtues that Objectivism doesn’t conceive the idea of virtue in the same way that virtue ethicists generally do. “Reasoning” that is purely idle contemplation, with no further life-serving goal in view, is a detriment to life. He does not destroy or harm others long-term, and he has no need to manipulate them into falsehoods. So OEE can’t be considered a virtue ethical theory. But compartmentalization itself is not rational, and the artificial distinction between the “spheres” breaks down more and more over time. (The classic utilitarian, J.S. This concept views the morality of any action from one angle, the respect of rules. He exists precariously on a razor’s edge: One slip-up could be the end of his freedom or his life. Bernie Madoff is a classic example of a desperately anxious and unhappy criminal. Some early followers of Kant, such as Friedrich Schiller, as well as many later critics up through the mid-20th Century, interpreted Kant as holding that actions must be motivated purely by duty to be unambiguously morally worthy or right. In order to throw other people off his trail, the criminal must encourage ignorance and delusion. Applied Ethics; Meta-Ethics; Normative Ethics; Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality; Philosophy of Law; Social and Political Philosophy; Value Theory, Miscellaneous; Science, Logic, and Mathematics. The main aim of any ethical theory is to do what is right and good since it involves moral rules or acting based on specific ethical values. The character traits that combine under auspicious conditions to produce eudaimonia. … Virtue Ethics, ed. Every major aspect of his existence is dictated by the force of agents of the government. These values of character–being honest, just, productive, etc, in one’s essence–are developed by deliberate thinking and continual effort. (So this means that individuals have duties to others based on the “agency” of those others.) Classic Utilitarianism (CU) defines moral goodness as pleasure–specifically, the aggregate pleasure of all sentient creatures. At the same time, the plantation owners became lazy dandies, with little self-esteem, and little or no drive to innovate. This makes eudaimonia a “moralized” or “value-laden” concept, according to virtue ethicists, which must be derived from the virtues. As “property of the superior people,” the slaves are not responsible for their own lives. Graph of World Poverty Rate, (absolute) 1970-2006, Ethical Theories Summarized & Explained: Consequentialism, Deontology, Virtue Ethics, and Objectivist Ethical Egoism. 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