Papua New Guinea has more languages than any other country,[92] with over 820 indigenous languages, representing 12% of the world's total, but most have fewer than 1,000 speakers. Papua New Guinea is geographically positioned … In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. These plant families are still present in Papua New Guinea. The province-level divisions are as follows: In 2009, Parliament approved the creation of two additional provinces: Hela Province, consisting of part of the existing Southern Highlands Province, and Jiwaka Province, formed by dividing Western Highlands Province. ), Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 08:05. [81], The Institute of National Affairs, a PNG independent policy think tank, provides a report on the business and investment environment of Papua New Guinea every five years, based upon a survey of large and small, local and overseas companies, highlighting law and order problems and corruption, as the worst impediments, followed by the poor state of transport, power and communications infrastructure. Provincial governments are branches of the national government as Papua New Guinea is not a federation of provinces. Numerous smaller islands are located to the west and east. It is the world's third largest island country with 462,840 km2 (178,700 sq mi).[12]. This was later referred to as "Papua New Guinea". It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Elizabeth II as its queen. Text taken from UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, 535–555, UNESCO, UNESCO Publishing. Following the return to civil administration after World War II, the Australian section was known as the Territory of Papua-New Guinea from 1945 to 1949 and then as Territory of Papua and New Guinea. The government and judiciary uphold the constitutional right to freedom of speech, thought, and belief, and no legislation to curb those rights has been adopted. The majority belong to the Sunni group, while a small number are Ahmadi. Nine out of ten were also co-authored by scientists from other countries, mainly Australia, the United States of America, United Kingdom, Spain and Switzerland. The shape of New Guinea is often compared to that of a bird-of-paradise (indigenous to the island), and this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest (Vogelkop in Dutch, Kepala Burung in Indonesian; also known as the Doberai Peninsula), and the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast (also known as the Papuan Peninsula). The 2011 census found that 95.6% of citizens identified themselves as Christian, 1.4% were not Christian, and 3.1% gave no answer. A large proportion of the population is illiterate,[112] with women predominating in this area. It is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west, and the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. Following a national outcry, these SABLs have been subject to a Commission of Inquiry, established in mid-2011, for which the report is still awaited for initial presentation to the Prime Minister and Parliament. Australia finally broke free from Antarctica about 45 million years ago. Remains of this agricultural system, in the form of ancient irrigation systems in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, are being studied by archaeologists. It is located in the deforming zone between the obliquely converging Pacific and Australian plates. In the nineteenth century, Germany ruled the northern half of the country for some decades, beginning in 1884, as a colony named German New Guinea. In 1545, Spaniard Íñigo Ortíz de Retes sailed along the north coast of New Guinea as far as the Mamberamo River, near which he landed on 20 June, naming the island 'Nueva Guinea'. The first Dutch government posts were established in 1898 and in 1902: Manokwari on the north coast, Fak-Fak in the west and Merauke in the south at the border with British New Guinea. In 2012, the first two (of three) readings were passed to prevent votes of no confidence occurring within the first 30 months. At 462,840 km2 (178,704 sq mi), Papua New Guinea is the world's 54th largest country and the 3rd largest island country. In other regions, the bride price is paid in lengths of shell money, pigs, cassowaries or cash. [8] Most of the population of over 7 million people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages. The Dutch, who arrived later under Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten, called it Schouten island. [74], The climate on the island is essentially tropical, but it varies by region. In practice, this has proved difficult and has been largely neglected. [112] Much of the education in PNG is provided by church institutions. [17] Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. [27], According to the WWF, New Guinea can be divided into twelve terrestrial ecoregions:[28], The WWF and Nature Conservancy divide New Guinea into five freshwater ecoregions:[29], The WWF and Nature Conservancy identify several marine ecoregions in the seas bordering New Guinea:[30], The first inhabitants, from whom the Papuan people are probably descended, adapted to the range of ecologies and, in time, developed one of the earliest known agricultures. The Land Group Incorporation Act requires more specific identification of the customary landowners than hitherto and their more specific authorisation before any land arrangements are determined; (a major issue in recent years has been a land grab, using, or rather misusing, the Lease-Leaseback provision under the Land Act, notably using 'Special Agricultural and Business Leases' (SABLs) to acquire vast tracts of customary land, purportedly for agricultural projects, but in an almost all cases as a back-door mechanism for securing tropical forest resources for logging—circumventing the more exacting requirements of the Forest Act, for securing Timber Permits (which must comply with sustainability requirements and be competitively secured, and with the customary landowners approval). State of Origin is a highlight of the year for most Papua New Guineans, although the support is so passionate that many people have died over the years in violent clashes supporting their team. [5] Most of the population of more than 8,000,000 people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages. New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), the largest island wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania. Pig-based trade between the groups and pig-based feasts are a common theme with the other peoples of southeast Asia and Oceania. The Australian territories were put under military administration and were known simply as New Guinea. Papua New Guinea's National Vision 2050 was adopted in 2009. [10] Geologically it is a part of the same tectonic plate as Australia. [66] The worst of the damage was centred around the Southern Highlands region. [49], The 1971 Sorcery Act imposed a penalty of up to 2 years in prison for the practice of "black" magic, until the act was repealed in 2013. The WHO Representative Office in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea was established in August 1976. Anti-Chinese rioting involving tens of thousands of people broke out in May 2009. According to the CIA World Factbook (2018),[91] Papua New Guinea has the second lowest urban population percentage in the world, with 13.2%, only behind Burundi. In some cultures, to get a bride, a groom must bring a certain number of golden-edged clam shells[107] as a bride price. The Council decided on the name of West Papua for the territory, along with an emblem, flag, and anthem to complement those of the Netherlands. "Melanesia, the ethnogeographic region that includes New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia, contains some of the most remote and inaccessible populations on earth." The country Papua New Guinea is located on the continent of Australia/Oceania. Earthquakes are relatively common, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis. Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education. People of the highlands engage in colourful local rituals that are called "sing sings". Papua New Guinea is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Pacific Community, Pacific Islands Forum, and the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) of countries. Freehold title (also known as fee simple) can only be held by Papua New Guinean citizens. Also about 600 species of reef-building coral—the latter equal to 75 percent of the world's known total. [6] The name Papua came to be associated with this area, and more especially with Halmahera, which was known to the Portuguese by this name during the era of their colonization in this part of the world. They are mostly represented by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, diverse Pentecostal denominations, the United Church in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, the Evangelical Alliance Papua New Guinea, and the Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea. At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975. The process of forming such a coalition in PNG, where parties do not have much ideology, involves considerable "horse-trading" right up until the last moment. Papua New Guinea (and the Solomon Islands) are unusual among Commonwealth realms in that governors-general are elected by the legislature, rather than chosen by the executive branch. Biogeographically, New Guinea is part of Australasia rather than the Indomalayan realm, although New Guinea's flora has many more affinities with Asia than its fauna, which is overwhelmingly Australian. In some areas people hunt and collect wild plants (such as yam roots and karuka) to supplement their diets. However, the Queensland government's superiors in the United Kingdom revoked the claim, and (formally) assumed direct responsibility in 1884, when Germany claimed north-eastern New Guinea as the protectorate of German New Guinea (also called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland). The unicameral National Parliament has 111 seats, of which 22 are occupied by the governors of the 22 provinces and the National Capital District. Its mainland on … Elsewhere, it is brides who traditionally pay a dowry. In 1969, Indonesia, under the 1962 New York Agreement, organised a referendum named the Act of Free Choice, in which hand picked Papuan tribal elders reached a consensus to continue the union with Indonesia. About half of the 2.4 million inhabitants of Indonesian Papua are Javanese migrants. The eastern half of the island is the major land mass o… During the 1950s, the Dutch government began to prepare Netherlands New Guinea for full independence and allowed elections in 1959; the elected New Guinea Council took office on 5 April 1961. They misused tens of millions of kina allocated for police housing, resources, and welfare. [14] The two landmasses became separated when the area now known as the Torres Strait flooded after the end of the last glacial period. This problem will be partially corrected when all of the larger Guardian-class patrol boats enter service. 17 7694–7698. He was succeeded by his deputy John Tabinaman as acting president while an election to fill the unexpired term was organised. [64] In December 2019, the autonomous region voted overwhelmingly for independence, with 97.7% voting in favor of obtaining full independence and around 1.7% voting in favor of greater autonomy.[65]. ", "Report claims secret genocide in Indonesia", "West Papua independence petition is rebuffed at UN", "Médecins Sans Frontières opens Papua New Guinea clinic for abuse victims", "Papua New Guinea: a country suffering spiralling violence", "Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific", "UNICEF strives to help Papua New Guinea break cycle of violence", "Stop Violence Against Women and Children in Papua New Guinea", PNG repeals sorcery law and expands death penalty, Papua New Guinea's 'Sorcery Refugees': Women Accused of Witchcraft Flee Homes to Escape Violence, "Papua New Guinea police accused of gun running and drug smuggling by own Minister", "Bougainville referendum not binding - PM", "Bougainville independence vote delayed to October", "Bougainville referendum: PNG region votes overwhelmingly for independence", "Major earthquake strikes Papua New Guinea", "State of Emergency declared as PNG earthquake toll rises to 31", "Agreement between Australia and Indonesia concerning Certain Boundaries between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia (1974) ATS 26", "Treaty between Australia and the Independent State of Papua New Guinea concerning Sovereignty and Maritime Boundaries in the area between the two Countries, including the area known as Torres Strait, and Related Matters [1985] ATS 4", "New and rare species found in remote PNG", Satellite images uncover rapid PNG deforestation, https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/profile/PNG/WEO, "Voters in Papua New Guinea head to the polls", "Customary Land Tenure in Papua New Guinea: Status and Prospects", "Facilitating Foreign Investment through Property Lease Options", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country", https://www.lonelyplanet.com/papua-new-guinea/background/history/a/nar/4b6acae7-2395-42d7-99f4-9f1f8ca24814/362825, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2212.html, "Seven decades after Independence, many small languages in India face extinction threat", "The country with the highest level of language diversity: Papua New Guinea – Pangeanic Translations", "Languages on Papua vanish without a whisper", "The State of the World's Midwifery – Papua New Guinea", "Papua New Guinea – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO", "Three dead in PNG after State of Origin violence", "Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Papua-Neuguinea", "Pacific-first centre of excellence for renewable energy and energy efficiency takes shape", Throwim' Way Leg: Tree-Kangaroos, Possums, and Penis Gourds, African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), ASEAN–Republic of Korea Commemorative Summit, Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, ASEAN–Australia Development Cooperation Program, Outstanding Scientist and Technologist Award, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence, United Liberation Movement for West Papua, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Papua_New_Guinea&oldid=995676463, English-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, States and territories established in 1975, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages move-protected due to vandalism, Articles containing Tok Pisin-language text, Articles containing Hiri Motu-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles needing additional references from March 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, New Britain-New Ireland lowland rain forests, New Britain-New Ireland montane rain forests, Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests. 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