Porcupine bezoar Apoptosis Cell cycle arrest Anti-angiogenesis Anti-metastasis ABSTRACT Porcupine bezoar (PB) is a calcified undigested material generally found in porcupine’s(Hystrix brachyura) gastrointestinal tract. 1 (2017): Special Issue: Enhancing Academic and Research Quality, CYTOTOXICITY OF LEUKEMIC CELLS BY NYPA FRUTICANS THROUGH REGULATION OF ADIPONECTIN EXPRESSION, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES: Vol. A lifetime of grasses, herbs, bark, and other vegetation can leave little bits of indigestible matter behind in a porcupine’s digestive tract, where they occasionally congeal into a hard ball called a bezoar. Contact Mr.Syaiful +6281389891852 , +601116377848 Porcupine Bezoar Medicinal Values According to Chinese medicine records, in tradition, Porcupine Bezoar had been used as medicine by hill tribes in Southern China and South-East Asia. PubMed Central  Additionally, porcupine bezoar was also known as lifesaver and used by patients with terminal illness. Samsul Draman, - 128.199.74.47. RIDZWAN HASHIM, Faizah Abdullah Asuhaimi, A pseudobezoar is an indigestible object introduced intentionally into the digestive system.. Porcupine Bezoar stone is a type of globular stone-like mass occasionally Produced in a porcupine’s internal body. Ancient book of Chinese medicine have been recorded, porcupine bezoar has benefits such as, 1. Azir Salleh, It can be organic or inorganic material and you would expect that it won’t be easy to find. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 7(7):e2310, Article  1 No. Guang Ming Daily Newspaper. UMMU AFIFAH FADZIR, Porcupine date is a rare "stone" that found in the stomach of a porcupine. Natural antibodies 1 No. It was reported as universal medicine in ancient time. ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE PROPERTY OF PORCUPINE BEZOAR EXTRACT ON MELANOMA (A375). A traditional folk medicine in Malaysia: porcupine bezoar Authors (first, second and last of 4) Chu Shan Tan; Chiew Hoong Ng; Mun Fei Yam; Content type: Review; Published: 28 March 2019; Pages: 131 - 136 Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. known as porcupine bezoar, a phytobezoar that is formed from the partly digested plant materials or herbs in the stomach of Himalayan porc( Hystrix brachyura )[8, MUHAMMAD FARID JOHAN, Latest issue. Ridhwan Abdul Wahab. In … Acta med Hist Adriat 12(1):77–98, Brown V (2015) Not a miracle cure. Ridhwan Abdul Wahab. RIDHWAN ABDUL WAHAB, Ridzwan Hashim, The bezoars found can be either round or elongated with peel like an volume 19, pages131–136(2019)Cite this article. Porcupine bezoars (PBs) are masses of undigested calcareous concretions formed within the gastrointestinal tract. Chu Shan Tan. A porcupine’s diet is wide, varied, and a little hard to digest. Pharm Hist (Lond) 43(1):13–22, Endangered animals of the world (2006) Animal info—Malaysia. Porcupine dates are also known as porcupine bezoar, a phytobezoar that is formed from the partly digested plant materials or herbs in the stomach of Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) [8,10]. One of the traditional folk medicine in the Malaysia is using porcupine bezoar. Alfi Khatib, CAS  Their meat is considered a delicacy in countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia. PB aqueous extract showed 11.68 μg/mL ± 0.67 TPC value while TFC was not detected confirming the absence of flavonoids in PB aqueous extract. Retrieved from http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/10749/0, Mori E, Sforzi A (2013) Structure of phytobezoars found in the stomach of a crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata L., 1758. Ibrahim Abuga, Porcupine Bezoar Medical Value According to Chinese medicine records, our ancestors and some aborigines have knowledge on the medicinal values of the porcupine bezoar. In: Akhtar MS, Swamy MK (eds) Anticancer plants: natural products and biotechnological implements. Hence, in this study, porcupine bezoar (PB) aqueous extract was evaluated for … In order to cure bulging diseases, residue in the porcupine can be made into powder and consume with warm wine. Old Chinese medical text had recorded the used of Porcupine Bezoar. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104:159–161, CAS  Google Scholar, Wong LP, AbuBakar S (2013) Health beliefs and practices related to dengue fever: a focus group study. ATHIRAH ROSDI, However, its potential as an anticancer agent against human cancers is still poorly studied and understood. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Ridzwan Hashim, Porcupine bezoar (PB) is used as folk medicine for various medical conditions including cancer treatment in Malaysia. A study published recently in the journal Global Ecology and Conservation tracked, for the first time, the online trade in old-world porcupines (those from the family Hystricidae in Asia and Africa). Genuine Porcupine Bezoar Date. Alaina Yuhanis Firus Khan, Retrieved from http://www.animalinfo.org/country/malaysia.html, Holloway WD, Lee SP, Nicholson GI (1980) The composition and dissolution of phytobezoars. Hence, the present study was performed to study PB aqueous extracts (PBAE) in vivo toxicity effects using the zebrafish embryo model. Ridhwan Abdul Wahab. Demand for bezoars isn’t the only threat porcupines face. However, its potential as an anticancer agent against human cancers is still poorly studied and understood. PubMed Google Scholar. Issue 4, December 2020 View all volumes and issues. Springer, Singapore, pp 19–39, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Chu Shan Tan, Chiew Hoong Ng, Yean Chun Loh & Mun Fei Yam, You can also search for this author in In summary, no, there there is no clinical evidence that Porcupine Bezoar cures cancer or other serious medical illness. Latest articles. Qamar Uddin Ahmed, In this study, porcupine bezoar is highlighted as potential anticancer agents. Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Bao SH (2014) 重镇化痰可治瘟病-箭猪枣非治百病. Tanzin Nippun Sharmin, Electroporation (EP) is a technique whereby the biophysical changes on the cells that induced external high-intensity electrical field pulses in order to enhance applications in the medical field. Subscription will auto renew annually. Volume 20. Hence, in this study, porcupine bezoar (PB) aqueous extract was evaluated for its potential as a safe anticancer agent. Porcupine Bezoar, Klang. As the A case report [ 43 ] has explained that porcupines which had bezoars suffered clinical signs of weight loss, diarrhea, and depression. The materials were collected by Loh Yean Chun. Tara Jalal, Ridhwan Abdul Wahab, The IC50 result for A375 was found to be 10.1 µg/mL ± 0.17. Porcupine bezoar (PB) has been previously reported to possess various medicinal properties. One of the traditional folk medicine in the Malaysia is using porcupine bezoar. Alaina Yuhanis Firus Khan, A traditional folk medicine in Malaysia: porcupine bezoar. It is herbivore. It is said that when a porcupine is wounded or sick, it will look for herbs to heal itself. Google Scholar, Khan FAY, Nasir MMH, Jalal T, Razali S, Hassan H, Asuhaimi FA, Wahab RA (2017) In vitro evaluation of porcupine bezoar extracts as anticancer agent on A549—a preliminary study. 3 No. PB aqueous extract showed significant anti-proliferation pattern at 24, 48 and 72 hours exposures. Orient Pharm Exp Med 19, 131–136 (2019). Bezoar porcupine benefits in medicine. Pharmacogn Res 9(4):366–371, Article  2. This bezoar has been a myth to the locals. Al’aina Yuhainis Firus Khan, 712 likes. A porcupine bezoar stone is a mass of food found in the stomach believed to treat diabetes, hepatitis, and dengue fever. SUHANA MAMAT. This quick miracle cure is also perceived to cure cancer, epilepsy, and typhoid.This preternatural or morbid concretions formed in the bodies of porcupines are composed of several layers that look like an onion. 3 (2019): Special Issue: Research Towards Sustainable Development Goals, ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF Curcuma longa, Punica granatum AND Terminalia catappa EXTRACTS, Hystrix brachyura BEZOAR: AN IN VIVO TOXICITY EVALUATION USING EMBRYO ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) MODEL. Retrieved from http://www.guangming.com.my/node/237350, Barroso MDS (2014) The bezoar stone: a princely antidote, the Tavora Sequira Pinto collection-Aporto. World J Gastroenterol 20(29):9952–9970, Article  Alfi Khatib, Retrieved from http://www.orientaldaily.com.my/s/74980, Liu XH (2016) The mystery of porcupine bezoar (箭猪枣之迷思). Abstract. PubMed Central  It is believed by some that the porcupine bezoar stone can be used to cure cancer, diabetes, dengue, typhoid, epilepsy, hepatitis and many more. The main focus of this review paper is on the porcupine bezoar which can be found in Malaysia. Genuine Porcupine bezoar is a medically potent and rare animal gall stone that is commonly found in the stomach region of a porcupine. Porcupine dates are also known as porcupine bezoar, a phytobezoar that is formed from the partly digested plant materials or herbs in the stomach of Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) [8, 10]. A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system, though it can occur in other locations. E-ISSN 2550-147X Later I found out that bezoar is a mass of food, usually from consuming grass and herbs, found trapped in an animal’s stomach system and is historically used in Chinese traditional medicine. Porcupine bezoar is undigested concretions of organic or inorganic which calcified and can be found in gastrointestinal tract of porcupine (Malayan hystrix) [7]. Porcupine bezoar (PB) is used in traditional medicine for various medical conditions. Shakirah Razali, This bezoar has been a myth to the locals. The widespread use of the bezoar as an alternative medicine for treatment of deadly illnesses in Malaysia was passed down from generations of the multi-diverse ethnicity environment that existed here. * I speak from my own experience. CAS  Porcupine bezoar (PB) has been previously reported to possess various medicinal properties. A Bezoar is a mass trapped in the stomach comprising some indigestible substance ingested by the human or animal. The researchers examined e-commerce sites in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore for four months in 2019, where they found active for-sale listings for 443 individual bezoars and a large variety of … PubMed  Tara Jalal, International Islamic University Malaysia, Understanding of Anti-Cancer Properties of Neolamarckia cadamba Leaves Extract on Breast Cancer Cell, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES: Vol. The bezoar is traditionally used in South East Asia and Europe for the treatment of cancer, poisoning, dengue, typhoid, etc. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine A porcupine’s diet is wide, varied, and a little hard to digest. Porcupine bezoar was found in the gastrointestinal tract of porcupine and made up of indigestible plant matters. Shakirah Razali, Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/opinion/online-exclusive/behind-the-cage/2015/06/12/not-a-miracle-cure/, Duffin CJ (2013) Porcupine stones. Dr Yam Mun Fei conceived and supervised the whole project. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. 2 (2017): Regular Issue, Cancer Chemoprevention Study of Luffa Aegyptiaca Seed Extract on Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7), ANTIOXIDANT, ANTICANCER AND GCMS ANALYSIS OF PORCUPINE BEZOAR AQUEOUS EXTRACTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BASED ON MODERN AND CONVENTIONAL EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES: Vol. Yes, eating the (real) porcupine dates can help our body to fight and cure a lot of illness. Folia Zool 62(3):232–234, Article  IC50 for DPPH was found to be 0.79 μg/mL ± 0.07. Retrieved from http://www.enanyang.my/news/20160512/%E7%AE%AD%E7%8C%AA%E6%9E%A3%E4%B9%8B%E8%BF%B7%E6%80%9D%E5%88%98%E6%99%93%E8%88%AA/, Lunde D, Aplin K, Molur S (2008) Hystrix brachyura, Malayan Porcupine. Suppliyer porcupine stone / porcupine bezoar. The manuscript was designed and written by Tan Chu Shan. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Nanyang Siang Pau. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The chemical profile and the medicinal properties of the bezoar is still unknown. Correspondence to Tan, C.S., Ng, C.H., Loh, Y.C. There are several varieties of bezoar, some of which have inorganic constituents and others organic.The term has both a modern (medical, scientific) and a traditional usage. Alfi Khatib, Google Scholar, Yew PN, Lee WL, Lim YY (2017) Antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species scavenging activities of three porcupine bezoars from Hystrix brachyura. Medicinal value of porcupine date and porcupine bezoar Based on the ancient medical books, porcupine belly, meat and glitch have medical value and are able to treat various diseases. Later, PB aqueous extract was subjected to A375 (Skin Malignant Melanoma) (IC50, cell proliferation assay) and HGF-1 (normal cell, for cytotoxicity assay) to evaluate its anticancer potential. PDF | Porcupine bezoar (PB) has been previously reported to possess various medicinal properties. Habibah Hassan, However, its potential as an anticancer agent against human cancers is still poorly studied and understood. Ridhwan Abdul Wahab. p. 61. The data from this study suggest the potential alternative use of PB in developing natural antioxidants and anti-proliferative agents for improving human health. It is a molecular biology technique in order to create pores through a cell wall membrane, boost the permeability of the cell membrane, and support chemicals, drugs or DNA to be imported into Hela cells. PubMed  Journal metrics 89 days Submission to first decision 200 days Submission to acceptance 16,094 (2019) Downloads. Ng Chiew Hoong participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. It has a coat of sharp spines that defend them from predators. et al. MOHAMMAD FAUZAN ZAINUDIN, However, limited scientific study has been carried out to verify these traditional claims. PubMed  There are undocumented claims that PBs have antioxidant activity and can treat cancers. Part of Springer Nature. Porcupine bezoar (PB) has been previously reported to possess various medicinal properties. Faizah Abdullah Asuhaimi, A porcupine’s diet is wide, varied, and a little hard to digest. The anti-inflammatory. Azir Salleh, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari Abdull Rasad. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2015/08/05/medicine-shops-claim-wildlife-products-a-cureall/#Zv1MlFF3CiX0VwqB.99, Wang DQH, Carey MC (2014) Therapeutic uses of animal biles in traditional Chinese medicine: an Ethnopharmacological, biophysical chemical and medicinal review. Google Scholar, The Star Online-Newspaper (2015) Medicine shops claim wildlife products a ‘cure-all’. FIRUS KHAN, A. Y., ABDULLAH ASUHAIMI, F., JALAL, T., NATTO, H. A., ROHEEM, F. O., AHMED, Q. U., JOHAN, M. F., HASHIM, R., & ABDUL WAHAB, R. (2017). However, its toxicity profile has never been thoroughly investigated to verify its safety nature. However, its toxicity profile has never been thoroughly ascertained to confirm its safe nature as an efficacious traditional medicine in the treatment of cancer as well as other ailments. The bezoar itself is a medical illness (gastrolith) for porcupines and needs to be surgically removed for the porcupine to survive. Firus Khan, Al'aina Yuhainis and Jalal, Tara Kamal and Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari and Hashim, Ridzwan and Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan (2016) Porcupine bezoar exhibit as anti-cancer activities on human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). Porcupine Bezoar is a type of stone-like organic substance found in a porcupine’s body. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-019-00370-4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-019-00370-4, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The selling price of the porcupine bezoar in Malaysia market is around RM300–RM1000 for 500 mg. Malaysia Oriental Daily Newspapar. Habibah Hassan, This manuscript described has not been published before; not under consideration for publication anywhere else; and has been approved by all co-authors. Fatimah Opeyemi Roheem, Initially PB was infused in water for 18 h to get PB aqueous extract which was preliminary tested for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), DPPH activity in order to confirm the presence of bioactive agents as antioxidants in PB. Alaina Yuhainis Firus Khan, Adv Biotechnol Microbiol 5(1):555651, Lim AX (2015) 60% Artificial Porcupine Bezoar (豪猪枣60%仿冒). Porcupine is a mammalian that live in forests. Interestingly, the scientific proofs of the usage of bezoar were limited. The selling price of the porcupine bezoar in Malaysia market is around RM300–RM1000 for 500 mg. 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